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Questionnaires are a widely used method to describe SHS exposure because they can be widely administered and integrated into existing surveys. They are the most feasible method for assessing SHS exposure in large populations. In addition, questionnaires can be used to assess historical exposure to SHS for use in epidemiologic studies.

  • Self-administered or interviewer-administered questionnaires may include questions about the presence of smokers in different locations, such as the workplace, public places, and the home, and time spent in these locations. Other questions may include the number of smokers in a household and smoking behavior in the home.
  • Questionnaires have limitations for quantifying exposure. Measurements of SHS in the air and biomarkers can be used to supplement and confirm self-reported information collected by questionnaires.


This project is funded by the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use and the Flight Attendant Medical Research Institute (FAMRI), developed in consultation with Roswell Park Cancer Institute and the University of Southern California, Institute for Global Health.